The worry is we're raising a generation of kids in front of screens whose brains are going to be wired differently. Although these technologies affect adults too, young people may be more influenced by it as their developing brains can easily become habituated to switching tasks and become unaccustomed to sustaining attention.
Technology is "rapidly and profoundly altering our brains. This leads to heightened stress levels on the brain that, at first, boost energy levels, but, over time, actually augment memory, impair cognition, lead to depression, alter the neural circuitry of the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex. These are the brain regions that control mood and thought. If unchecked, the underlying structure of the brain could be altered. When children are exposed before the age of seven, important developmental tasks may be delayed, and bad learning habits might develop, which "deprives children of the exploration and play that they need to develop.
According to Lai, "the learning environment is a complex system where the interplay and interactions of many things impact the outcome of learning. If technology monopolizes an activity, students can begin to develop the sense that "life would scarcely be thinkable without technology. Leo Marx considered the word "technology" itself as problematic,  susceptible to reification and "phantom objectivity", which conceals its fundamental nature as something that is only valuable insofar as it benefits the human condition.
Technology ultimately comes down to affecting the relations between people, but this notion is obfuscated when technology is treated as an abstract notion devoid of good and evil. Langdon Winner makes a similar point by arguing that the underdevelopment of the philosophy of technology leaves us with an overly simplistic reduction in our discourse to the supposedly dichotomous notions of the "making" versus the "uses" of new technologies, and that a narrow focus on "use" leads us to believe that all technologies are neutral in moral standing.
Winner viewed technology as a "form of life" that not only aids human activity, but that also represents a powerful force in reshaping that activity and its meaning. In education, standardized testing has arguably redefined the notions of learning and assessment. We rarely explicitly reflect on how strange a notion it is that a number between, say, 0 and could accurately reflect a person's knowledge about the world.
According to Winner, the recurring patterns in everyday life tend to become an unconscious process that we learn to take for granted. Winner writes,. By far the greatest latitude of choice exists the very first time a particular instrument, system, or technique is introduced. Because choices tend to become strongly fixed in material equipment, economic investment, and social habit, the original flexibility vanishes for all practical purposes once the initial commitments are made. In that sense, technological innovations are similar to legislative acts or political foundings that establish a framework for public order that will endure over many generations.
When adopting new technologies, there may be one best chance to "get it right. Now that typing has become a digital process, this is no longer an issue, but the QWERTY arrangement lives on as a social habit, one that is very difficult to change. Neil Postman endorsed the notion that technology impacts human cultures, including the culture of classrooms, and that this is a consideration even more important than considering the efficiency of a new technology as a tool for teaching.
What we need to consider about the computer has nothing to do with its efficiency as a teaching tool. We need to know in what ways it is altering our conception of learning, and how in conjunction with television, it undermines the old idea of school. There is an assumption that technology is inherently interesting so it must be helpful in education; based on research by Daniel Willingham, that is not always the case.
He argues that it does not necessarily matter what the technological medium is, but whether or not the content is engaging and utilizes the medium in a beneficial way. The concept of the digital divide is a gap between those who have access to digital technologies and those who do not.
According to a report by the Electronic Frontier Foundation , large amounts of personal data on children is collected by electronic devices that are distributed in schools in the United States. Often far more information than necessary is collected, uploaded and stored indefinitely. Aside name and date of birth, this information can include the child's browsing history, search terms, location data, contact lists, as well as behavioral information.
Since technology is not the end goal of education, but rather a means by which it can be accomplished, educators must have a good grasp of the technology and its advantages and disadvantages. Teacher training aims for effective integration of classroom technology. The evolving nature of technology may unsettle teachers, who may experience themselves as perpetual novices. Random professional development days are inadequate. According to Jenkins, "Rather than dealing with each technology in isolation, we would do better to take an ecological approach, thinking about the interrelationship among different communication technologies, the cultural communities that grow up around them, and the activities they support.
There are two distinct issues of assessment: the assessment of educational technology   and assessment with technology. Assessments of educational technology have included the Follow Through project. Educational assessment with technology may be either formative assessment or summative assessment. Instructors use both types of assessment to understand student progress and learning in the classroom.
Technology has helped teachers create better assessments to help understand where students who are having trouble with the material are having issues. Formative assessment is more difficult, as the perfect form is ongoing and allows the students to show their learning in different ways depending on their learning styles. Technology has helped some teachers make their formative assessments better, particularly through the use of classroom response systems CRS. The instructor then asks multiple choice or true or false questions and the students answer on their device.
Summative assessments are more common in classrooms and are usually set up to be more easily graded, as they take the form of tests or projects with specific grading schemes. One huge benefit to tech-based testing is the option to give students immediate feedback on their answers. When students get these responses, they are able to know how they are doing in the class which can help push them to improve or give them confidence that they are doing well.
Electronic assessment uses information technology. It encompasses several potential applications, which may be teacher or student-oriented, including educational assessment throughout the continuum of learning, such as computerized classification testing , computerized adaptive testing , student testing , and grading an exam.
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E-Marking is an examiner led activity closely related to other e-assessment activities such as e-testing, or e-learning which are student-led. E-marking allows markers to mark a scanned script or online response on a computer screen rather than on paper. There are no restrictions to the types of tests that can use e-marking, with e-marking applications designed to accommodate multiple choice, written, and even video submissions for performance examinations. E-marking software is used by individual educational institutions and can also be rolled out to the participating schools of awarding exam organisations.
Ofqual reports that e-marking is the main type of marking used for general qualifications in the United Kingdom. In June , the Odisha state government in India announced that it planned to use e-marking for all Plus II papers from The importance of self-assessment through tools made available on Educational Technology platforms has been growing. Self-assessment in education technology relies on students analyzing their strengths, weaknesses and areas where improvement is possible to set realistic goals in learning, improve their educational performances and track their progress.
Analytics is data gathered on the student's activities on the learning platform, drawn into meaningful patterns that lead to a valid conclusion, usually through the medium of data visualization such as graphs. Learning analytics is the field that focuses on analyzing and reporting data about student's activities in order to facilitate learning. The five key sectors of the e-learning industry are consulting, content, technologies, services and support.
Educational technologists and psychologists apply basic educational and psychological research into an evidence-based applied science or a technology of learning or instruction. In research, these professions typically require a graduate degree Master's, Doctorate, Ph. In industry, educational technology is utilized to train students and employees by a wide range of learning and communication practitioners, including instructional designers , technical trainers , technical communication and professional communication specialists, technical writers , and of course primary school and college teachers of all levels.
The transformation of educational technology from a cottage industry to a profession is discussed by Shurville et al. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Use of technology in education to improve learning and teaching. It is not to be confused with Online machine learning. Main article: Educational software. Main articles: Educational psychology , E-learning theory , Learning theory education , and Educational philosophies.
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